State of Alaska Grade 2 Mathematics Standards

I. Operations and Algebraic Thinking 
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. 
2.OA.1 Use addition/subtraction to estimate/solve word problems to 100 
Use addition and subtraction strategies to estimate, then solve one and twostep word problems (using numbers up to 100) involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart and comparing, with unknowns in all positions (e.g., by using objects, drawings and equations). Record and explain using equation symbols and a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. [[ Q1  Q2  Q3 ]] 
Add & subtract using numbers up to 20. 
2.OA.2 Fluently add & subtract using #s up to 20 with mental strategies 
Fluently add and subtract using numbers up to 20 using mental strategies. Know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers. 
Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication. 
2.OA.3 Determine if a group of objects (up to 20) is odd or even 
Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) is odd or even (e.g., by pairing objects and comparing, counting by 2s). Model an even number as two equal groups of objects and then write an equation as a sum of two equal addends. [[ Q1 ]] 
2.OA.4 Use addition to find the total # of objects in an array 
Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns. Write an equation to express the total as repeated addition (e.g., array of 4 by 5 would be 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 20). [[ Q4 ]] 
Identify and continue patterns. 
2.OA.5 Identify, state the rule, continue, & label # patterns 
Identify, continue and label number patterns (e.g., aabb, abab). Describe a rule that determines and continues a sequence or pattern. [[ Q1 ]] 
II. Number and Operations in Base Ten 
Understand Place Value 
2.NBT.1 Model & identify place value positions of three digit numbers 
Model and identify place value positions of three digit numbers. Include: 
2.NBT.2 Count up to 1000, skipcount by 5s, 10s & 100s 
Count up to 1000, skipcount by 5s, 10s and 100s. [[ Q1  Q2 ]] 
2.NBT.3 Read, write, order up to 1000 using baseten, # names & expanded form 
Read, write, order up to 1000 using baseten numerals, number names and expanded form. [[ Q1  Q2 ]] 
2.NBT.4 Compare 2 threedigit #s with place value & use >, =, < symbols 
Compare two threedigit numbers based on the meanings of the hundreds, tens and ones digits, using >, =, < symbols to record the results. [[ Q2 ]] 
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. 
2.NBT.5 Fluently add & subtract #s to 100 
Fluently add and subtract using numbers up to 100. 
2.NBT.6 Add up to 4 twodigit numbers using various strategies 
Add up to four twodigit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. [[ Q3  Q4 ]] 
2.NBT.7 Add & subtract using numbers up to 1000 
Add and subtract using numbers up to 1000. Relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Demonstrate in adding or subtracting threedigit numbers, hundreds and hundreds are added or subtracted, tens and tens are added or subtracted, ones and ones are added or subtracted and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten from ten ones or a hundred from ten tens. [[ Q3  Q4 ]] 
2.NBT.8 Mentally add or subtract 10 or 100 to a given number up to 900 
Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100900 and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number. [[ Q2  Q3 ]] 
2.NBT.9 Explain processes of addition & subtraction 
Explain or illustrate the processes of addition or subtraction and their relationship using place value and the properties of operations. [[ Q2  Q3  Q4 ]] 
III. Measurement and Data 
Measure and estimate lengths in standard units. 
2.MD.1 Measure using tools rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, & measuring tapes 
Measure the length of an object by selecting and using standard tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [[ Q1 ]] 
2.MD.2 Measure objects twice using different length units for the measurements 
Measure the length of an object twice using different length units for the two measurements. Describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [[ Q1 ]] 
2.MD.3 Estimate, measure, & draw lengths using various units of measurement 
Estimate, measure and draw lengths using whole units of inches, feet, yards, centimeters and meters. [[ Q1 ]] 
2.MD.4 Measure to compare lengths of two objects 
Measure to compare lengths of two objects, expressing the difference in terms of a standard length unit. [[ Q1 ]] 
Relate addition and subtraction to length. 
2.MD.5 Solve addition & subtraction word problems involving length to 100 
Solve addition and subtraction word problems using numbers up to 100 involving length that are given in the same units (e.g., by using drawings of rulers). Write an equation with a symbol for the unknown to represent the problem. [[ Q2  Q3 ]] 
2.MD.6 Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line 
Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1,2, …, and represent wholenumber sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram. [[ Q2  Q3 ]] 
Work with time and money. 
2.MD.7 Tell & write time to the nearest 5 minutes on analog & digital clocks 
Tell and write time to the nearest five minutes using a.m. and p.m. from analog and digital clocks. [[ Q1  Q2  Q3 ]] 
2.MD.8 Solve word problems involving dollar bills & coins using $/¢ symbols 
Solve word problems involving dollar bills and coins using the $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. [[ Q2  Q3  Q4 ]] 
Represent and interpret data. 
2.MD.9 Collect, record, interpret, represent, & describe data 
Collect, record, interpret, represent, and describe data in a table, graph or line plot. [[ Q3  Q4 ]] 
2.MD.10 Draw a picture graph & a bar graph with up to 4 categories 
Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with singleunit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple puttogether, takeapart and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. [[ Q3  Q4 ]] 
IV. Geometry 
Reason with shapes and their attributes. 
2.G.1 Identify & draw triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons & cubes 
Identify and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces compared visually, not by measuring. Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons and cubes. [[ Q4 ]] 
2.G.2 Divide a rectangle into rows & columns of samesize squares 
Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of samesize squares and count to find the total number of them. [[ Q4 ]] 
2.G.3 Divide circles & rectangles into shares & use fraction words 
Partition circles and rectangles into shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. [[ Q4 ]] 
Reading  Literature 
RL.2.1 Ask/answer questions including who, what, where, when, why & how 
1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of a literary text using key details from the text. 
RL.2.2 Retell stories/fables/folktales from diverse cultures with purpose 
2. Retell stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine the author’s purpose (e.g., teach a lesson, make you laugh, tell a scary story, describe an imaginary place), lesson or moral. 
RL.2.3 Describe how characters respond to major events, problems & challenges 
3. Describe how characters in a story, play or poem respond to major events, problems, and challenges. 
RL.2.4 Identify words/phrases that supply rhythm or sensory images & meaning 
4. Identify words and phrases that supply rhythm or sensory images and meaning in a story, poem, or song (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) and describe how they make a reader feel or what a reader might see in his or her mind. 
RL.2.5 Describe the overall structure of a story 
5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story (who, what, why, where), the middle describes the problem (how characters react or feel and what they do), and the ending concludes the action or tells how the problem was solved. 
RL.2.6 Acknowledge different points of view of characters 
6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. 
RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations & words 
7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot (e.g., problemsolution; 
RL.2.9 Compare/contrast two or more versions of the same story/text 
9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story/text (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures. 
RL.2.10 Read & comprehend literature from a variety of cultures 
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend a range of literature from a variety of cultures, within a complexity band appropriate to grade 2 (from upper grade 1 to grade 3), with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 
Reading  Informational Text 
RI.2.1 Ask & answer questions like who, what, where, when, why & how 
1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of informational texts using key details from the text. 
RI.2.2 Identify main topics in a multiparagraph text 
2. Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. 
RI.2.3 Describe the connection between a series of events or ideas 
3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 
RI.2.4 Determine the meaning of words/phrases in text 
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. 
RI.2.5 Know & use text features to locate key facts & information efficiently 
5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, headings, charts, bulleted or numbered lists, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. 
RI.2.6 Identify the author's main purpose of a text 
6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe. 
RI.2.7 Explain how specific images contribute to & clarify a text 
7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text. 
RI.2.8 Describe how information supports specific opinions in a text 
8. Describe how reasons given support specific opinions the author states in a text. 
RI.2.9 Compare/contrast the most important points from 2 texts 
9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts or related topics (e.g., a book about polar bears and a book about black bears). 
RI.2.10 Read & comprehend a range of informational texts 
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend a range of informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts within a complexity band appropriate to grade 2 (from upper grade 1 to grade 3), with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 
Reading  Foundational Skills 
RF.2.3 Know & apply gradelevel phonics & word analysis skills 
3. Know and apply gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words; 
RF.2.4 Read with sufficient accuracy & fluency to support comprehension 
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension; 
Writing 
W.2.1 Write organized opinion pieces 
1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide one or more concluding sentences that restate or paraphrase their opinion. 
W.2.2 Write organized informative/explanatory texts 
2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or one or more concluding sentences that emphasize their most important point or focus. 
W.2.3 Use narrative writing to retell a real/imagined wellelaborated event 
3. Use narrative writing to retell a wellelaborated event or short sequence of real or imagined events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use linking words to signal event order, and provide one or more concluding sentences that restate or emphasize a feeling or lesson learned. 
W.2.5 With support, from adults & peers, focus on a topic & strengthen writing 
5. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed (e.g., adding concrete and sensory details; 
W.2.6 With support, from adults, use digital tools to produce & publish writing 
6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. 
W.2.7 Participate in shared research & writing projects 
7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report or visual or oral presentation; 
W.2.8 Recall info from experiences to answer a question 
8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. 
Speaking and Listening 
SL.2.1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners 
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups; 
SL.2.2 Retell/describe key ideas/details from text read aloud or a presentation 
2. Retell or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. 
SL.2.3 Ask/answer questions to clarify comprehension of what was said 
3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. 
SL.2.4 Tell a story or retell an experience with relevant facts 
4. Tell a story or retell an experience with relevant facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. 
SL.2.5 Create audio recordings of stories or poems & add visual displays 
5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; 
SL.2.6 Produce complete sentences when appropriate to the task/situation 
6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) 
Language 
L.2.1 Demonstrate the conventions of English grammar & usage in writing/speaking 
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; 
L.2.2 Demonstrate the conventions of English when writing 
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; 
L.2.3 Use knowledge of language & conventions when communicating 
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening; 
L.2.4 Determine/clarify meaning of unknown & multiplemeaning words 
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies; 
L.2.5 Demonstrate understanding of word relationships & nuances 
5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings; 
L.2.6 Use words/phrases acquired thru conversations & reading 
6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy). 